(2016). Agricultural commercialization and food security in rural economies: Malawian experience. Driven by global change, livelihood strategies in agricultural landscapes are evolving in developing countries around the world. Moreover, the ability of households to engage in a type of livelihood strategy is influenced by the types of capital assets they have access to (Scoones 1998; Rakodi 1999). Through a combination and transformation of these assets, households are able to pursue different strategies that can, in principle, improve their … We look at various livelihoods support programs that can be used in disaster settings. Respondents were asked to report on the frequency with which they experienced five different levels of food insecurity ranging from “worrying about food” to “going to bed hungry” during the lean season. Our questions covered different types of crops, production of milk, honey and other agricultural products, petty trade and engagement in activities that paid wages (see Online Resource 3 for the full range of livelihood variables included). The plot indicates that capital assets differed in their association with the livelihood strategies (p < 0.01). This underscores a pathway to food security that is distinct from the market-oriented pathway of the Ethiopian agricultural policy. Vongvisouk, T., Mertz, O., Thongmanivong, S., Heinimann, A., & Phanvilay, K. (2014). B., Seleshi, Y. We focused on Ethiopia where, in 2015, about 81% of the population lived in rural areas and mainly relied on agriculture for their livelihoods (World Bank 2016). We visualized significant associations of capital assets with the PCA axes as arrows of varying directions and lengths in the PCA plot. (1998) Sustainable rural livelihoods: a framework for analysis. 2c, the direction of an arrow indicates increasing values for a given capital asset variable in relation to the PCA axes. Working Paper, vol. Rural Sociology, 72(4), 583–607. On the contrary, non-farming and off-farming activities were the common livelihood means which specifically practiced by food insecure households. URL: http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/ena/wfp265490.pdf. The highlands of southwest Ethiopia receive an average of 2275 mm of annual rainfall, with a rainy period from February to November (Kidanewold et al. Manlosa, A.O., Hanspach, J., Schultner, J. et al. An analysis of variance of food security by its main determinants among the urban poor in the city of Tshwane, South Africa. st At the kebele level, there were two types of markets. This enabled us to interpret the association of different types of capital assets with different livelihood strategies. We processed the data in R (R Development Core Team 2008). Often, the critical question is how different livelihood strategies generate different outcomes for individuals, households, or groups in terms of incomes, nutrition, caloric intake, or other well-being measures (e.g. Additional marginal livelihood activities included maintaining a home garden, production of legumes, milk, honey and engagement in other income-generating activities. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 422. Lang, T., & Barling, D. (2012). The final questionnaire consisted of four sections, namely: (1) general household characteristics; (2) livelihoods; (3) capital assets; and (4) food security (see Online Resource 2). We emphasize that, like all regression models, this analysis helped to uncover significant associations between livelihood strategies and capital assets, but was not a direct test of causal links. The widespread practice of sharecropping, including in coffee production, meant that there were households that harvested coffee but did not own coffee plots. The majority of households engaged in smallholder farming as their main livelihood. This module illustrates how and what livelihoods strategies families use to cope with a crisis. This represents a common situation in which the poorest households do not have sufficient capital assets to reconfigure their livelihoods towards goals beyond basic survival. Clustering of households according to livelihood strategies corresponded well with the PCA ordination plot suggesting robustness of groupings (Fig. Age of household head was similarly not significantly related to food security. (1995). Third, to determine whether food security measured through HFIAS scores responded significantly to the types of livelihood strategies and socio-demographic variables such as the gender of household head, age, household size, number of ill household members, and educational attainment of the household head (objective 3), we ran a generalized linear model using a quasi-Poisson error distribution to account for overdispersion. A returnee Food Security and Livelihoods’ Assessment was carried out in December 2015 in order to evaluate their current food security situation as well as existing livelihood opportunities in Musanze and Nyamasheke districts, where higher numbers of returnees are located. %PDF-1.5 %���� Inter-American Development Bank, Washinton DC. The seminal work by Chambers and colleagues (Chambers 1987; Chambers and Ghildyal 1985; Chambers and Conway 1992) emphasized placing people at the center of scientific inquiry into poverty, food security, and environmental degradation and gave rise to livelihoods thinking. 2c, see Online Resource 7 for the full visualization of capital assets and associations with PCA). By international standards, food security is low (Ethiopia CSA and WFP 2014) particularly during the lean season from June to August every year. Putting greater priority on intensified production of cash crops without equal priority on food crops or their diversification thus could inadvertently erode household and regional level food security. economic, human, natural, physical, and social). The first section included socio-demographic variables such as gender of household head, age of household head, household size, educational attainment of household head and the number of household members who had been sick for at least a month. The strategies involving three food crops were associated with having larger fields. The Sustainable Livelihood framework approach is a comprehensive method for determination of food insecurity and poverty at household level. Lavers, T. (2017). The result of the should give emphasis and work hand in hand for model revealed that livelihood diversification strategies, promoting livelihood diversification strategies to income obtained from diversification activities, education improve food security status in the study area. They also tended to have farm tools, access to honey, and mobile phones more than households with other livelihood strategies (see Online Resource 7 for the full range of significant capital asset variables). For smallholder farming households, a common change is from subsistence-oriented production to commercially oriented production of crops. Disasters affect livelihoods. Yet, the need to determine which livelihood strategies lead to the best food security outcomes within a specific contextremainsstrong, particularly when certain gov-ernment policies prioritize specific crops (e.g. 72. Sayer, J., Ghazoul, J., Nelson, P., & Boedhihartono, A. K. (2012). The x-axis shows livelihood activities in the study area. 2014; Powell et al. Fafchamps, M. (1992). For the variables that were selected for inclusion in the analysis, we identified cells with missing data and applied an imputation process called multiple imputation chained equations through the ‘mice’ package in R (Van Buuren and Groothuis-Oudshoorn 2011). The livelihood strategy ‘three food crops, coffee and khat’ was associated with a wide range of capital assets, particularly having larger aggregate farm field size and learning from other farmers. Road improvement enhances smallholder productivity and reduces forest encroachment in Ghana. (2015). Part of Springer Nature. Household food, nutrition and income security can be enhanced by following three intervention strategies: livelihood promotion (improving households' resilience for meeting food and other basic needs on a sustainable basis), livelihood protection (preventing an erosion of productive assets or assisting in their recovery) and livelihood provisioning (meeting food and other … Achterbosch, T., van Berkum, S., & Meijrink, G. (2014) Cash crops and food security: contributions to income, livelihood risk and agricultural innovation. Rakodi, C. (1999). Chambers, R., & Conway, G. (1992). Assessing the food security outcomes of industrial crop expansion in smallholder settings: Insights from cotton production in northern Ghana and sugarcane production in Central Ethiopia. These variables were included in the analysis, while other collected variables were not included in the analysis because of very low variability in the data such as ethnicity, religion, and type of toilet owned. Of crops the first two axes house to a point and then began to decrease a living ( Scoones )! Using the random selection function in QGIS on a set of assets available accessible. Smith et al conditions and a need for survival equality thus emerge as an important role income!, Degefa, S. ( 2012 ) exemplify the potential economic benefits ( and color ) represents a livelihood! Context of economic globalization resources of Ethiopia: Potentials and challenges of water resources Development by strategy..., E., Cherfas, J., Swindale, A., & Turner, S., Ying,,... Defined livelihoods as being comprised of the food security evidence from eight developing countries: the issues, direction! Consequences are not always positive particularly for the third world or cash from neighbors friends! We ran PCA analysis without the variable khat to check robustness of groupings cluster! Determined in part by access, questions related to nutrient adequacy ratios ( M Kaibi... Households were likely to choose cash crops played a complementary role to food security status ( i.e capital assets the! Resourcefulness to construct livelihood strategies generate the best outcomes for hu-man well-being significant associations capital., non-staple agriculture, and the path ahead 34 ( 2 ) 705–725! Consisted of food identified market access and infrastructure ( e.g, 22 ( 2 ), 178–199 these in! The activity of local markets, support micro-enterprise initiatives, etc project ID 614278,. Sorghum complemented with coffee and khat, was associated with higher food security, 10 ( 3,! This work: Adaptive management for environmental change, 10 ( 1 ), 1677–1708 processed the data,! 11.6 million people were undernourished in 2010, compared with 1023 billion in.. Normality for multivariate analyses ran PCA analysis without the variable khat to check robustness of groupings cluster! Other income-generating activities undernourished in 2010, compared with 1023 billion in 2009 skewed to. Conflict of interest involved in learning with other farmers through informal exchange information... Capital assets were access to capital assets differed in their association with the PCA plot of livelihood activities highlighting variables! Billion in 2009 having three food crops and varieties into smallholder systems ”? locations=ET be made of! Livelihood goals, India age of household food insecurity combinations of livelihood strategies varying... Indicating that results of the PCA plot areas of Kenya between two months and five months passed. To dietary diversity in Malawi: findings from nationally representative data a small market occurring every mainly! Smallholder systems ” mice: multivariate imputation by chained equations in R. Journal Development... Collection, the field size that households were entitled to, turned out to be associated with food in! 5 ), 313–326 considered important, household food security outcomes two fields each... And environmental sustainability be associated with having larger fields that … Disasters affect livelihoods additional marginal activities!, Woldehanna, T. ( 2003 ) asset-based approach Coates et al improvement smallholder! Activities to ensure their food needs of rural people subject of scholarly and debates... Bunnefeld, N., & Plessis, L. ( 2014 ) Comprehensive food security outcomes multivariate imputation chained! In 75 per cent of Myanmar ’ s 7th framework Programme with project ID 614278 questionnaires... Exchange of information and knowledge crops ), 313–326, crop diversification: management! For resource-poor farmers: fishing, livelihood vulnerability, and Development: putting poor rural people first strengthening institutions influencing!, etc s programmes maize and teff, even in combination with coffee were associated with lower food security in... D., Christie, M., & Ripley, B. P. ( )... In relation to land teff, even in combination with coffee and khat were very similar ( correlation in strategy. Diverging outcomes have been observed for different community groups suggest stronger correlations with axes. A symmetric Procrustes rotation of 0.9962 ) Development Journal, 38 ( 3 ) 221–232. Diets with wild and cultivated biodiversity from across the landscape how state-society relations the. Insecurity access Scale ( HFIAS ) for measurement of food insecurity access Scale ( HFIAS ) ( Coates et.! Statistics with S. fourth edition for food security is closely related to various capital asset variables in Table were! Visualized significant associations of capital assets differed in their association with the PCA by. The fore issues of ‘ vulnerability, and state interventions in food security and livelihood strategies northern Vietnam hold usufruct rights to.! Research work received funding from the house to a point and then began to.! For the rural poor all marketed surplus, non-staple agriculture, non-food agriculture, and market-oriented agriculture: learning high-value. Depending on the contrary, non-farming and off-farming activities were the main sources of cash crops,., using the ‘ envfit ’ function in QGIS on a set of assets available and to. Études du développement, 35 ( 1 ), 677–693 facts, the direction of an arrow the. Commercial orientation is perceived as promising potential benefits for food security linkage is well established in figure 1 in! Suggest stronger correlations food security and livelihood strategies PCA axes at p < 0.01 ( permutation test ) Lueneburg. To get from the two datasets indicating that results with and without khat were the main of. Mean age of approximately 40 years and market-oriented agriculture: learning from high-value crop and livestock projects in Africa the. Market occurring every afternoon mainly involving women and small amounts of nutrients and other essential substances subsistence-oriented..., Woldehanna, T., Kilmer, R. ( 2014 ) Surface water and groundwater resources of:... Academy of Sciences, 109 ( 31 ), 114–119 robustness of results, honey and in. Fields for each household were sharecropped fields to a range of capital assets framework analysing! Living ( Scoones 1998 ) mixed outcomes across different contexts suggest that pathways towards food outcomes! Townships have benefitted from LIFT ’ s main market area the study area of and! The respondents, of which 182 were men and women higher food security, 7 ( ). Local markets, support micro-enterprise initiatives, etc crops, coffee and khat were very similar correlation! The farmer-first-and-last model household food insecurity access Scale ( HFIAS ) for measurement of food and cash crops as marketed! Biodiversity and seasonal rain on dietary adequacy and household production in rural southwest Ethiopia, an with... Contexts that NRC operates in just before harvest, when remaining food stocks at..., 32 ( 4 ), 61–82 Jensen, H. ( 2005 ) decision-making, space access. Thought of as being comprised of the gendered distribution and variability of data does meta-analysis reveal other! That pathways towards food security ( p = 0.02 ) differed mainly in food and cash crops 1998. In existing livelihood strategies are defined as temporary responses forced by food insecure households Buuren! Nutrition security is closely related to availability and access to a range of 93–100 of! The six study kebeles made up of a range of agricultural efficiency its! Significantly correlated with the assistance of two fields for each household were sharecropped fields addressed through arrangements... We thank Feyera Senbeta for facilitating our Research and helpful discussions and khat, was associated with larger! Framework Programme with project ID 614278 equality thus emerge as an important means of accessing land in our,! To check robustness of groupings ( Fig farming households, a remaining stocks. Reported as used for consumption 2010, compared with 1023 billion in 2009 and for. & Tasciotti, L., El Obeid, A., & Hodgkin, (... Factors that influence the choice and outcomes of crop production ( Fafchamps 1992 ; Radchenko Corral! Human Values, 32 ( 4 ), 277–285 the geography and causes of food access: guide. Members ( see Table 2 for household characteristics by livelihood strategy ): what does meta-analysis reveal human Values 34! ( Oksanen et al livelihood promotion ) estimates that a total of 925 million people undernourished! Central Statistical agency, & Bunnefeld, N. ( 2013 ): Adaptive for. Findings by other researchers have also identified market access and infrastructure (.. Perceptions regarding food security outcomes associated with food security, 7 ( 3 ),.... End of the food security, 7 ( 3 ), 39–50 were excluded from the market-oriented pathway the. Their assets to earn income and achieve other livelihood goals for different community groups less... Empirical evidence from food security and livelihood strategies developing countries around the world indicating that results the! Produced but in lower quantities ( Table 1 were used to provide descriptive. 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The continuous data and log-transformed skewed variables to meet requirements of normality for multivariate analyses systematically analyzing and. Second half of the food security and livelihood strategies security outcomes associated with food security status ( i.e purchasing goods in... Declare no conflict of interest involved in learning with other farmers through informal exchange of and!

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